The doctrine of double effect
Nevertheless, many criticisms of the principle of double effect do not proceed from consequentialist assumptions or skepticism about the distinction between intended and merely foreseen consequences.
But they are not accidents, because they are foreseen!
What is the doctrine of double effect yahoo answers
Sacrificing one's own life in order to save the lives of others can be distinguished from suicide by characterizing the agent's intention: a soldier who throws himself on a live grenade intends to shield others from its blast and merely foresees his own death; by contrast, a person who commits suicide intends to bring his or her own life to an end. The bad effect is sometimes said to be indirectly voluntary. Fitzpatrick, William J. Of course, if the harm to the one is rightly described as a merely foreseen side effect of switching the trolley, then this alone does not show that it is permissible to cause it. Mackie, Ted Honderich ed. This ensures that Double Effect is not misunderstood as principle issuing a blanket permission on causing any unintended harm that yields a benefit. Is it always wrong to kill another person, or is it only wrong to intentionally do so? Critics of the principle of double effect claim that the pattern of justification used in these cases has some shared conditions: the agent acts in order to promote a good end, shows adequate respect for the value of human life in so acting, and has attempted to avoid or minimize the harm in question. The principle of double effect is much more specific than that. Where living with pain is worse than death, they argue, the principle of double effect permits the administration of a drug, even if it will kill the patient. Duff, Antony
If artificial hydration and nutrition are not provided, sedation undertaken to deal with intractable pain may well hasten death.
Walzer, Michael Early terminal sedation could be expected to hasten death as a side effect of providing palliative care for unusually recalcitrant pain.
Doctrine of double effect trolley problem
Baumgarth and Richard J. Quill et al. A doctor who believes abortion is always morally wrong may still remove the uterus or fallopian tubes of a pregnant woman, knowing the procedure will cause the death of the embryo or fetus , in cases in which the woman is certain to die without the procedure examples cited include aggressive uterine cancer and ectopic pregnancy. Formulations of the principle of double effect Thomas Aquinas is credited with introducing the principle of double effect in his discussion of the permissibility of self-defense in the Summa Theologica II-II, Qu. Advance Warning Each party to the conflict must give effective advance warning of attacks which may affect the civilian population, unless circumstances do not permit. For example, double effect contrasts those who would allegedly permissibly provide medication to terminally ill patients in order to alleviate suffering with the side effect of hastening death with those who would allegedly impermissibly provide medication to terminally ill patients in order to hasten death in order to alleviate suffering. Is it morally permissible to perform that action? McMahan, Jeff Many doctors use this doctrine to justify the use of high doses of drugs such as morphine for the purpose of relieving suffering in terminally-ill patients even though they know the drugs are likely to cause the patient to die sooner. Many relevant considerations depend on judgments that are far outside the ambit of Double Effect.
If the permissibility of an action depended only on the consequences of the action, or only on the foreseen or foreseeable consequences of the action, then the distinction that grounds double effect would not have the moral significance claimed for it see the related entry on consequentialism.
Even if it is equally certain that the two bombers will cause the same number of civilian deaths, terror bombing is impermissible while tactical bombing is permissible. For example, the Rules of Customary International Humanitarian Law displayed on the website of the International Committee of the Red Cross prohibit attacks targeting civilians.
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