To help you better understand this theory imagine this scenario: There are two animals living in a forest. Operant conditioning Negative reinforcement.Google Scholar Ohman, A. He distinguished phobias from typical fear, stating that phobias occur without any objective source of danger and can develop in response to nearly anything. These are all common phobias. Phobias are characterised as a conditioned reaction that is specific, persistent, intense and irrational with a compelling need to avoid the phobic object or situation Reber, Archives of General Psychiatry, 62 6 , — Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. As a result you will behave in a way that keeps you clear of spiders. Phobias and preparedness. Proudly powered by Weebly.
Edit The theory of evolution and preparedness can help explain biologically why people have phobias. See Bennet-Levy and Marteau. Seligman thought that less input was needed to learn an association to a prepared stimulus than to a non prepared one.
New York: Oxford University Press. In conclusion, the biological theory of phobias suggests that we have genes of fear for these objects that were passed down to us from our ancestors, causing us to be more 'prepared' to fear objects that were harmful to early humans, making us more likely to fear these objects over objects that were not harmful to them in the past.
Therefore, the extent to which we learn phobias may be determined by our biology!New York: Oxford University Press. Introduction Isaac Marks described phobias as an intense fear of objects or situations that is out of proportion to their danger, cannot be explained or reasoned away, is beyond voluntary control, and leads to avoidance of the feared stimuli. Behavior Therapy, 2 3 , — Behavior Therapy. The fear of snakes and spiders persisted. At first this causes hesitation when dealing with the rat and eventually after 10 days or so the third trial he becomes distressed when the rat is seen. Comparing acceptance and refusal rates of virtual reality exposure vs. I will discuss classical conditioning and preparedness theory and how preparedness theory has attempted to integrate a Pavlovian model of the acquisition of specific phobias with this biological specificity. Preparedness Edit Preparedness is the tendency to learn some associations more easily, quickly and permanently than others. Furthermore, he referred to the intense feeling of fear or anxiety experienced by phobic individuals when they encounter their feared stimuli as phobic anxiety. Preparedness theory was introduced by Seligman whereby the concept of preparedness attempts to explain why fears and phobias are so much more likely to occur with biological stimuli than non-biological stimuli Davey,
As a result you will behave in a way that keeps you clear of spiders. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. This individual difference in susceptibility to acquiring phobias suggests a possible diathesis-stress predisposition to phobias.
If you suffer from arachnophobia then avoiding spiders will result in you suffering less anxiety.