A historic overview of the middle ages and renaissance

Pippin's takeover was reinforced with propaganda that portrayed the Merovingians as inept or cruel rulers, exalted the accomplishments of Charles Martel, and circulated stories of the family's great piety.

Supreme authority was wielded by the pope in the first of these areas and by the emperor in the second.

Middle ages facts

In the 16th century, Martin Luther , a German monk, led the Protestant Reformation — a revolutionary movement that caused a split in the Catholic church. Increasingly the Byzantine Church differed in language, practices, and liturgy from the Western Church. Voyagers launched expeditions to travel the entire globe. Artwork was no longer just depictions of holy topics. He wrote at least 37 plays and sonnets. From these areas, the denier or penny spread throughout Europe during the centuries from to In fact, it was a unique time when these fields of study fused together seamlessly. Prior to its invention, books were made by hand. Charles, more often known as Charles the Great or Charlemagne , embarked upon a programme of systematic expansion in that unified a large portion of Europe, eventually controlling modern-day France, northern Italy, and Saxony. By the Treaty of Verdun , a kingdom between the Rhine and Rhone rivers was created for Lothair to go with his lands in Italy, and his imperial title was recognised. The printing press could produce books very quickly with little effort. Around the Mediterranean, pottery remained prevalent and appears to have been traded over medium-range networks, not just produced locally. Scientific discoveries led to major shifts in thinking: Galileo and Descartes presented a new view of astrology and mathematics, while Copernicus proposed that the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of the solar system. No silver coins denominated in multiple units were minted. His book revealed that the earth was not the center of the universe.

A contemporary chronicle claims that Pippin sought, and gained, authority for this coup from Pope Stephen II pope — At the time of his death inPippin left his kingdom in the hands of his two sons, Charles r.

Ignatius Loyola wrote a series of five books that defended the church and scolded Luther for his crusade against it. Monastic ideals spread from Egypt to Western Europe in the 5th and 6th centuries through hagiographical literature such as the Life of Anthony.

Theological and political differences emerged, and by the early and middle 8th century issues such as iconoclasmclerical marriageand state control of the Church had widened to the extent that the cultural and religious differences were greater than the similarities.

early middle ages start date

Gold continued to be minted until the end of the 7th century, when it was replaced by silver coins. Lothair took East Franciacomprising both banks of the Rhine and eastwards, leaving Charles West Francia with the empire to the west of the Rhineland and the Alps.

Renaissance period

Apart from that interlude, no large political structure arose in Europe to provide stability. Smaller kingdoms in present-day Wales and Scotland were still under the control of the native Britons and Picts. This was especially marked in the lands that did not lie on the Mediterranean, such as northern Gaul or Britain. Louis's reign of 26 years was marked by numerous divisions of the empire among his sons and, after , civil wars between various alliances of father and sons over the control of various parts of the empire. Around the Mediterranean, pottery remained prevalent and appears to have been traded over medium-range networks, not just produced locally. A brief treatment of the Middle Ages follows. Painting Renaissance painters used more realistic depictions than artists in the Middle Ages. Little trade existed and much of that was with the British Isles and Scandinavia, in contrast to the older Roman Empire with its trading networks centred on the Mediterranean. Once again, symmetry became a part of the music they created. For instance, artists like da Vinci incorporated scientific principles, such as anatomy into their work, so they could recreate the human body with extraordinary precision. Copper or bronze coins were not struck, nor were gold except in Southern Europe.

Niccolo Machiavelli wrote that there is no place for religion or morality in politics in his book The Prince. As a result, a new form of Christianityknown as Protestantism, was created.

The register, or archived copies of the letters, of Pope Gregory the Great pope — survived, and of those more than letters, the vast majority were concerned with affairs in Italy or Constantinople. He believed that a person has an individual relationship to God.

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Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance